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Madagascar: types of mosquito

All four species of human plasmodia are endemic in Madagascar.

While Plasmodium falciparum predominates in all areas, P. vivax and other species may make up as much as 10-15% of all cases, especially in the highlands.

The two primary vectors are Anopheles gambiae (East and West Coasts) and A. funestus (Central Highlands and South). Anopheles arabiensis is also present in all four epidemiological zones.

Anopheles funestus increases in density during the rice-growing season and was the primary vector responsible for the outbreaks which occurred in the Central Highlands in the late 1980s. Since this vector is highly endophilic, it is quite sensitive to IRS. Anopheles arabiensis is also present in the highlands, but is more exophilic.